“Are you looking at me?”: Behavioural and electrophysiological measures of gaze-following across childhood.


The interpretation of a conspecific’s direction of gaze is of fundamental importance to human (Frischen et al., 2007) and non-human (Emery, 2000) behavioural interactions. Eye-gaze direction is a direct cue to a conspecific’s immediate intentions. Across development, gaze following informs the child both of the other’s intentions to act, but also provides a clue as to what adults are referring to when uttering words that the child is not already familiar with. In human adults, there is a bias to assume that ambiguous gaze is directed at one’s own self (Mareschal et al. 2013). How this behaviour develops and is impacted on by 2D vs 3D information remains unclear.


Corneil, B. D. & Munoz, D. P. (2014) Overt responses during covert orienting. Neuron, 82, 1230-1242


Emery NJ (2000). The eyes have it: the neuroethology, evolution and function of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 581-604.


Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007) Gaze cueing of attention: visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 694-724.


Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW (2013) . Humans have an expectation that gaze is directed toward them. Current Biology, 23, 717-721.


Rhodes, M. G. & Anastasi, J. S. ( 2012) The own-age bias in face recognition: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 146-174.

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Animal disease, health and welfare