The folding of newly synthesised proteins to their functional states is considered as cracking the second half of the genetic code. The degeneracy of the genetic code means that amino acids are coded by more than one codon. The nature of codon usage is unclear. The use of rare codons has been suggested to play important roles in co-translational protein folding, as the protein folds whilst emerging from the ribosome. This project will focus on rare codons in the understudied area of membrane protein folding. Mutations of rare codons may lead to membrane protein misfolding and disease.
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