Synaptic vesicles (SV) are 40-50 nm membrane organelles that transport and release neurotransmitters by fusing with the synaptic membrane. Their dynamics is critical to control synaptic activity and is linked to molecular motors. However, SV speed is 2-5 fold higher than a typical motor-driven movement. Herein we hypothesize that their diffusion is also controlled by the specific distribution of membrane proteins on their surface creating localized propulsion regimes. The project will involve the purification and characterization of SV by light scattering and electron microscopy, as well as the exploitation of diffusional analysis tracking packages to evaluate any anomalous diffusion pattern
H. C. Berg Random Walks in Biology, Princeton University Press, (1993), NY
D. Cecchin, A. Joseph, S. Nyberg, C. Contini, A. Akhtar, L. Ruiz-Perez, G. Fullwstone, J. Madsen, A. J. Ryan, C. Fernyhough, S. P. Armes, R. Golestanian and G. Battaglia. (2014) Enzyme-driven chemotactic synthetic vesicles Nature Nanotech., in the press
S. Takamori, M. Holt, K. Stenius, E. A. Lemke, M. Gronborg, D. Riedel,H. Urlaub, S. Schenck, B. Brugger, P. Ringler, S. A. Muller, B. Rammer, F. Grater, J. S. Hub, B. L. De Groot, G. Mieskes, Y. Moriyama, J. Kinguaf, H. Grubmuller, H. Heuser, F. Wieland, R. Jahn. (2006) Molecular Anatomy of a Trafficking Vesicle. Cell, 127, 831-846
Osborne SL, Herreros J, Bastiaens PI and Schiavo G (1999) Calcium-dependent oligomerization of synaptotagmins I and II. Synaptotagmins I and II are localized on the same synaptic vesicle and heterodimerize in the presence of calcium. J Biol Chem 274, 59-66
Rishal I, Kam N, Shinder V, Fisher EMC, Schiavo G and Fainzilber M (2012) Motor driven intracellular length sensing in neurons. Cell Reports 1, 1-9.